【The Golan Heights – Kokia House Visitors Center, Jerusalem】【戈兰高地—耶路撒冷美地展览馆】

The Golan Heights (Hebrew: רמת הגולן) is a region in the Levant, spanning about 1,800 square kilometres. The earliest evidence of human habitation on the Golan dates to the Upper Paleolithic period. According to the Bible, an Amorite Kingdom in Bashan was conquered by Israelites during the reign of King Og. Throughout the Old Testament period, the Golan was the focus of a power struggle between the kings of Israel and the Aramaeans.

In addition to its strategic military importance, the Golan Heights is an important water resource, especially at the higher elevations, which are snow-covered in the winter and help sustain baseflow for rivers and springs during the dry season. The occupied sector of the Golan Heights provides or controls a substantial portion of the water in the Jordan River watershed, which in turn provides a portion of Israel’s water supply.

In the 16th century, the Golan was conquered by the Ottoman Empire until it was transferred to French mandate in 1918. When the mandate terminated in 1946, it became part of the newly independent Syrian Republic. Since the 1967 Six-Day War, the western two-thirds of the Golan Heights has been occupied and administered by Israel, whereas the eastern third remains under control of the Syrian Arab Republic. On 25 March 2019, U.S. President Donald Trump proclaimed that “the United States recognizes that the Golan Heights are part of the State of Israel”, making the United States the first and only country to recognize Israeli sovereignty over the effectively annexed regions of the Golan Heights.

戈蘭高地(Golan Heights‬‎)南北長71公里,中部最寬處約43公里,面積1800平方公里(其中以色列控制1200平方公里),約六個台北市大。它位於敘利亞西南部,約旦河谷地東側,具有豐富的水資源,被稱為中東的水塔。居民約15,000人,大多是德魯茲派穆斯林。國際上承認戈蘭高地為敘利亞的領土。


第一次世界大戰後戈蘭高地隸屬法國委任統治地敘利亞。1967年六日戰爭期間,以色列擊敗敘利亞,占領戈蘭高地至今。1973年遮罪日戰爭爆發,敘利亞軍隊反攻; 1974年雙方達成協議,以色列軍隊撤離高地東緣,設立一狹長的緩衝地帶,由聯合國部隊進駐。1995年,以色列總理拉賓聲明,以色列可能交出戈蘭高地,以換取中東和平。2016年,以色列總理納坦雅胡卻表示戈蘭高地是以色列不可分割的一部分,將永遠留在以色列手中。2019年,美國總統川普宣布,將正式承認以色列對戈蘭高地的「主權」。

Source: https://www.facebook.com/kokiahouse/posts/2382965918624568